RAPTOR® Technical

Species of Wood - Recommended Nail Lengths

The SPECIES OF WOOD and MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED NAIL LENGTHS tables below show the density of common woods and the recommended RAPTOR® nail lengths for woodworking applications. This information is meant to be a guide and not a guarantee of performance. Each particular application should be tested for suitability for that application.

Drivability of RAPTOR® fasteners depends on the density and hardness of the substrate and the shape of the fastener (length/diameter). Shorter, thicker nails will drive into harder substrates easier than long, thin nails. Longer nails are limited to soft wood applications. Maximum holding is achieved with 3/8” penetration into the substrate. Choose the shortest nail possible for best drivability. Utilize the tables below to assist in determining if RAPTOR® nails of a given length will penetrate particular woods.

RAPTOR® staples will drive into harder substrates if pneumatic tools are used rather than manual tools; however RAPTOR® staples may not drive in very dense woods such as hickory and ash. Woods with very dense latewood growth rings do not give good performance with RAPTOR® products.

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Table 1: Wood Densities by Species

The following lists the density of some woods. The Drivability of RAPTOR® fasteners depends on the density and hardness of the substrate and the shape of the fastener (length/diameter). Shorter thicker nails will drive into harder substrates easier than long, thin nails. RAPTOR® staples will drive into harder substrates if pneumatic tools are used rather than manual tools.

While some customers are using shorter staples and brads in oak and maple (Group l), longer nails are limited to soft wood applications (Group lll & lV). Woods with very dense latewood growth rings do not give good performance with RAPTOR® products.

 

Species Of Wood

Relative Density *→
(Specific Gravity)

Group I

Ash, Commercial White
0.62
Beech
0.68
Birch, Sweet & Yellow
0.66
Hickory & Pecan
0.75
Maple, Black & Sugar
0.66
Oak, Red & White
0.67

Group II

Douglas Fir-Larch
0.51
Southern Pine
0.55
Sweetgum & Tupelo
0.54
Virginia Pine-Pond Pine
0.54

Group III

California Redwood.
0.42
Douglas Fir, South.
0.48
Eastern Hemlock.
0.43
Eastern Hemlock-Tamarack.
0.45
Eastern Softwoods.
0.42
Eastern Spruce.
0.43
Hem-Fir.
0.42
Lodgepole Pine.
0.44
Mountain Hemlock.
0.47
Mountain Hemlock-Hem Fir.
0.44
Northern Aspen.
0.42
Northern Pine.
0.46
Ponderosa Pine.
0.49
Ponderosa Pine, Sugar Pine.
0.42
Red-Pine.
0.42
Sitka Spruce0.
0.43
Southern Cypress.
0.48
Spruce-Pine-Fir.
0.42
Western Hemlock.
0.48
Yellow Poplar.
0.46

Group IV

Aspen
0.40
Balsam Fir
0.38
Black Cottonwood
0.33
California Redwood, Open Grain
0.37
Coast Sitka Spruce
0.39
Coast Species
0.39
Cottonwood, Eastern
0.41
Eastern White Pine
0.38
Eastern Woods
0.38
Engelmann Spruce-Alpine Fir
0.36
Idaho White Pine
0.40
Northern Species
0.35
Northern White Cedar
0.31
West Coast Woods
0.35
Western Cedars
0.35
Western White Pine
0.40
White Woods (Western)
0.35

Table 2: WOOD SPECIES and MAXIMUM RECOMMENDED NAIL LENGTHS

For Woodworking Applications

Click here to Download the PDF »

  DENSITY 18Ga PINS/BRADS 16Ga PINS 15Ga FINISH NAILS
SPECIES (103kg/m3) (lb/ft3) 7/16" 5/8" 3/4" 1" 7/16" 5/8" 3/4" 1/2" 5/8" 3/4" 1" 1-1/4" 1-1/2"
Ponderosa Pine0.4729
Poplar0.5132
Douglas Fir0.5132
Cellular PVC0.5534
Loblolly Pine0.5735
Okoume Marine Grade Plywood0.5735
Black Cherry0.6037
Maple-Soft0.6138
LDF0.6138
Southern Yellow Pin0.6541
Mahogany0.6541
Teak0.6541
Oak-Red (Southern)0.7043
White Ash0.7144
Maple-Hard0.7044
Oak-Red (Northern)0.7446
Pecan0.7446
MDF0.7548
Oak-White0.8050
Hickory0.8352 Will not drive into Hickory

Click here to Download the PDF »

Results may vary from above due to wood variations, season/dryness and operator technique.
Choosing the Right Nail Length: Maximum holding is achieved with 3/8" penetration into the substrate.
Driveability decreases as the length of the nail increases; Holding power stays the same. Choose the shortest nail possible.
- Data source: The Wood Database

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